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Legal Method
Law And Society
Law Of Torts
Principles Of Public Law
Constitutional Law
Law Of Contract
Criminal Law And Procedure
Administrative Law
Law Of Property
Law Of Trusts
Law Of Remedies
Jurisprudence
Corporate Law
Family Law
Labour Law
Human Rights Law
Unjust Enrichment
Medical Law
Media Law
Succession Law
Planning Law
Vendor And Purchaser
Environmental Law
Law And Indigenous Peoples
Commercial Law
Competition Law
Insurance Law
Consumer Law
Introduction To Taxation Law
Law And Technology
Financial Services Regulation
Private International Law
Public International Law
International Humanitarian & Criminal Law
Maritime Law
European Union Law
International Trade Law
Jessup International Law Moot
Asian Legal Systems
Comparative Law
Legal History
Advanced Crime And Criminology
Advanced Jurisprudence
Clinical Legal Education
Special Topic
Research Project
Islamic Law
Immigration And Refugee Law
Copyright Law
Patent & Trademark Law
Law Moot
Alternative Dispute Resolution
Causation And Proof
International Organisations
Advanced Private Law
Advanced Public Law
Advanced Tax
Law Of Political Institutions
Privacy Law
Advocacy: Principles, Procedures And Practice
Human Trafficking And Migrant Smuggling Working Group
Civil Procedure
Law Of Evidence
The Legal Profession

Legal Method


This paper describes methods or technique for working with law. Knowing how to use these techniques furnishes two major advantages to a lawyer or a law student. Studying legal technique provides rigorous intellectual training. Learning a good technique helps a student to learn law and a lawyer to work with it in their professional life. There is a strong motive to have a good technique when working with law. In the 21st century the amount of information to be processed is increasing as is the rate of increase, while the time potentially available to process this information stays the same. One of the major means of dealing with this situation is to make better use of available time by improving techniques for working with information. Doing this for law will enable legal information to be delivered in a clearer way by those who prepare it, and processed more efficiently by those who use it. Tasks Working with law involves two primary sets of tasks – forming law which incorporates making and interpreting law, and using law which encompasses litigation and transaction. Working with law also incorporates a secondary or ancillary task, communicating law, which consists of writing and reading law. Thus there are three fundamental categories of tasked involved in working with law – forming law, using law and communicating law. Logically, this would be the way to structure the presentation of techniques for performing these tasks. In fact, this is how it is done, but subject to a qualification.

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Law and Society


The Law and Society Association (LSA), founded in 1964, is a group of scholars from many fields and countries who share a common interest in the place of law in social, political, economic and cultural life. It is one of the leading professional associations for those interested in the sociology of law. Members bring expertise in law, sociology, political science, psychology, anthropology, economics, history, and geography as well as in other related areas to the study of sociolegal phenomena. Among its activities, the Association publishes the Law & Society Review, sponsors annual conferences and educational workshops, and fosters the development of academic programs in law and society around the world.

Law of Torts


Tort law in India is a relatively new common law development supplemented by codifying statutes including statutes governing damages. While India generally follows the UK approach, there are certain differences which may indicate judicial activism, hence creating controversy. Tort is breach of some duty independent of contract which has caused damage to the plaintiff giving rise to civil cause of action and for which remedy is available. If there is no remedy it cannot be called a tort because the essence of tort is to give remedy to the person who has suffered injury.

Three Types of Torts

Torts are wrongdoings that are done by one party against another. As a result of the wrongdoing, the injured person may take civil action against the other party. To simplify this, let's say while walking down the aisle of a grocery store, you slip on a banana that had fallen from a shelf. You become the plaintiff, or injured party, and the grocery store is considered the tortfeasor or defendant, the negligent party. Simply said, you would probably take civil action against the grocery store to recoup compensation for pain, suffering, medical bills and expenses incurred as a result of the fall. Negligence is just one tort category. There are three general categories of torts. Regardless of the tort action, three elements must be present:
• Tortfeasor, or defendant, had a duty to act or behave in a certain way.
• Plaintiff must prove that the behavior demonstrated by the tortfeasor did not conform to the duty owed to the plaintiff.
• The plaintiff suffered an injury or loss as a result.
Because torts are a civil action involving private parties, punishment does not include a fine or incarceration. The punishment for tortious acts usually involves restoring the injured party monetarily. Sometimes a court order may force the tortfeasor to either do or not do something. Think trespassing, defamation or slander. Let's explore the three types of torts:
• Intentional torts
• Negligence torts
• Strict liability torts

Principles of Public Law


Public law (lat. ius publicum) is that part of law which governs relationships between individuals and the government, and those relationships between individuals which are of direct concern to the society.Public law comprises constitutional law, administrative law, tax law and criminal law,as well as all procedural law. In public law, mandatory rules prevail. Laws concerning relationships between individuals belong to private law.

Constitutional Law


The written text of the state and federal constitutions. The body of judicial precedent that has gradually developed through a process in which courts interpret, apply, and explain the meaning of particular constitutional provisions and principles during a legal proceeding. Executive, legislative, and judicial actions that conform with the norms prescribed by a constitutional provision.The text of the U.S. Constitution is marked by four characteristics: a delegation of power, in which the duties and prerogatives of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches are delineated by express constitutional provisions; a Separation of Powers, in which the responsibilities of government are divided and shared among the coordinate branches; a reservation of power, in which the sovereignty of the federal government is qualified by the sovereignty reserved to the state governments; and a limitation of power, in which the prerogatives of the three branches of government are restricted by constitutionally enumerated individual rights, Unenumerated Rights derived from sources outside the text of the Constitution, and other constraints inherent in a democratic system where the ultimate source of authority for government action is the consent of the people. In deciding their cases, courts look to these constitutional provisions and principles for guidance. Once a court has interpreted a constitutional provision in a certain fashion, it becomes a precedent. Under the doctrine of Stare Decisis, the judicial branch is required to adhere to existing precedent in all future cases presenting analogous factual and legal circumstances, unless it has a compelling reason for deviating from the precedent or overruling it. A state or federal law is said to be constitutional when it is consistent with the text of a constitutional provision and any relevant judicial interpretations. A law that is inconsistent with either the written text or judicial interpretation of a constitutional provision is unconstitutional.

Law of Contract


What Is a Contract?

When a salesperson asks you to sign on the dotted line, it is important to understand the contents of the agreement you are signing. After all, the agreement you are entering into is a contract! A contract is a written or expressed agreement between two parties to provide a product or service. There are essentially six elements of a contract that make it a legal and binding document. In order for a contract to be enforceable, it must contain:
1 An offer that specifically details exactly what will be provided
2 Acceptance, which is the agreement by the other party to the offer presented
3 Consideration, money or something of interest being exchanged between the parties
4 Capacity of the parties in terms of age and mental ability
5 The intent of both parties to carry out their promise
6 Legally enforceable terms and conditions, also called object of the contract
In other words, a contract is enforceable when both parties agree to something, back the promise up with money or something of value, both are in sound mind and intend to carry out their promise and what they promise to do is within the law.
Most commonly, a contract is written and signed by the parties. However, there are several other types of contracts that are considered enforceable. There are even some that are not considered enforceable and serve only as a way for a court to determine the obligation on the part of either party.

Criminal Law and Procedure


Criminal procedure is the adjudication process of the criminal law. While criminal procedure differs dramatically by jurisdiction, the process generally begins with a formal criminal charge and results in the conviction or acquittal of the defendant.

Administrative Law


Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government. Government agency action can include rulemaking, adjudication, or the enforcement of a specific regulatory agenda. Administrative law is considered a branch of public law. As a body of law, administrative law deals with the decision-making of administrative units of government (for example, tribunals, boards or commissions) that are part of a national regulatory scheme in such areas as police law, international trade, manufacturing, the environment, taxation, broadcasting, immigration and transport. Administrative law expanded greatly during the twentieth century, as legislative bodies worldwide created more government agencies to regulate the social, economic and political spheres of human interaction.

Law of Property


There are two types of property

Real property and Personal Property Most of the legal concepts and rules associated with both types of property are derived from English Common Law. Modern law has incorporated many of these concepts and rules into statutes, which define the types and rights of ownership in real and personal property. Personal property, also referred to as movable property, is anything other than land that can be the subject of ownership, including stocks, money, notes, Patents, and copyrights, as well as intangible property. Real property is land and ordinarily anything erected on, growing on, or affixed to it, including buildings and crops. The term is also used to declare any rights that issue from the ownership of land. The terms real estate and real property generally refer to land. The term land, in its general usage, includes not only the face of the earth but everything of a permanent nature over or under it, including minerals, oil, and gases. In modern usage, the word premises has come to mean the land itself or the land with all structures attached. Residential buildings and yards are commonly referred to as premises. The difference between real property and personal property is ordinarily easily recognizable. The character of the property, however, can be altered. Property that is initially personal in nature becomes part of realty by being annexed to it, such as when rails are made into a fence on land. In certain cases, however, the intention or agreement of the parties determines whether property that is annexed retains its character as personal property. A Landlord and Tenant might agree that the new lighting fixture the tenant attaches to the ceiling of her dwelling remains the tenant's property after the expiration of the lease. Property may be further classified as either private or public. Private property is that which belongs to one or more persons. Public property is owned by a country, state, or political subdivision, such as a Municipal Corporation or a school district.

Law of Trusts


A relationship created at the direction of an individual, in which one or more persons hold the individual's property subject to certain duties to use and protect it for the benefit of others. Individuals may control the distribution of their property during their lives or after their deaths through the use of a trust. There are many types of trusts and many purposes for their creation. A trust may be created for the financial benefit of the person creating the trust, a surviving spouse or minor children, or a charitable purpose. Though a variety of trusts are permitted by law, trust arrangements that are attempts to evade creditors or lawful responsibilities will be declared void by the courts. The law of trusts is voluminous and often complicated, but generally it is concerned with whether a trust has been created, whether it is a public or private trust, whether it is legal, and whether the trustee has lawfully managed the trust and trust property.

Law of Remedies


The way a right is enforced by a court of law when injury, harm, or a wrongful act is imposed upon another individual. The laws of remedies will be based on the extent of relief the plaintiff is entitled to receive after appropriate court procedures were followed and the plaintiff proved with sufficient evidence they were wronged by the defendant.

Jurisprudence


The word jurisprudence derives from the Latin term juris prudentia, which means "the study, knowledge, or science of law." In the United States jurisprudence commonly means the philosophy of law. Legal philosophy has many aspects, but four of them are the most common. The first and the most prevalent form of jurisprudence seeks to analyze, explain, classify, and criticize entire bodies of law. Law school textbooks and legal encyclopedias represent this type of scholarship. The second type of jurisprudence compares and contrasts law with other fields of knowledge such as literature, economics, religion, and the social sciences. The third type of jurisprudence seeks to reveal the historical, moral, and cultural basis of a particular legal concept. The fourth body of jurisprudence focuses on finding the answer to such abstract questions as What is law? How do judges (properly) decide cases? Apart from different types of jurisprudence, different schools of jurisprudence exist. Formalism, or conceptualism, treats law like math or science. Formalists believe that a judge identifies the relevant legal principles, applies them to the facts of a case, and logically deduces a rule that will govern the outcome of the dispute. In contrast, proponents of legal realism believe that most cases before courts present hard questions that judges must resolve by balancing the interests of the parties and ultimately drawing an arbitrary line on one side of the dispute. This line, realists maintain, is drawn according to the political, economic, and psychological inclinations of the judge. Some legal realists even believe that a judge is able to shape the outcome of the case based on personal biases.

Corporate Law


What is a Corporation?

As we noted above, the five core structural characteristics of the business corporation are: (1) legal personality, (2) limited liability, (3) transferable shares, (4) centralized management under a board structure, and (5) shared ownership by contributors of capital. In virtually all economically important jurisdictions, there is a basic statute that provides for the formation of firms with all of these characteristics. As this pattern suggests, these characteristics have strongly complementary qualities for many firms. Together, they make the corporation uniquely attractive for organizing productive activity. But these characteristics also generate tensions and tradeoffs that lend a distincti

Family Law


The law relating to family disputes and obligations has grown dramatically since the 1970s, as legislators and judges have reexamined and redefined legal relationships surrounding Divorce, Child Custody, and Child Support. Family law has become entwined with national debates over the structure of the family, gender bias, and morality. Despite many changes made by state and federal legislators, family law remains a contentious area of U.S. law, generating strong emotions from those who have had to enter the legal process.

Labour Law


Indian labour law refer to laws regulating labour in India. Traditionally Indian governments at federal and state level have sought to ensure a high degree of protection for workers, but in practice, legislative rights only cover a minority of workers. India is a federal form of government and because labour is a subject in the concurrent list of the Indian Constitution, labour matters are in the jurisdiction of both central and state governments. Both central and state governments have enacted laws on labour relations and employment issues.

Human Rights Law


International human rights law is the body of international law designed to promote and protect human rights at the international, regional, and domestic levels. As a form of international law, international human rights law is primarily made up of treaties, agreements between states intended to have binding legal effect between the parties that have agreed to them; and customary international law, rules of law derived from the consistent conduct of states acting out of the belief that the law required them to act that way. Other international human rights instruments while not legally binding contribute to the implementation, understanding and development of international human rights law and have been recognised as a source of political obligation.

Unjust Enrichment


In law, unjust enrichment is where one person is unjustly or by chance enriched at the expense of another, and an obligation to make restitution arises, regardless of liability for wrongdoing.[1] A common example is when a party contracts to provide a service, but the contract is terminated prematurely due to a breach, and the contractor unjustly receives no compensation for partial services rendered.

Medical Law


What is Medical Law?

Medical law is the body of laws concerning the rights and responsibilities of medical professionals and their patients. The main areas of focus for medical law include confidentiality, negligence and other torts related to medical treatment (especially medical malpractice), and criminal law and ethics.

Media Law


Media Law is a legal field that relates to legal regulation of the telecommunications industry, information technology, broadcasting, advertising, the entertainment industry, censorship, and internet and online services among others. As the popularity of various media have proliferated, the field of media law has become more important. Just over a century ago, the media would have consisted of print and live performances alone. Today, the media comprises not only the printed word and live actors, but also radio, television, movies, video games, mobile devices, and the Internet.

Succession Law


The transfer of title to property under the law of Descent and Distribution. The transfer of legal or official powers from an individual who formerly held them to another who undertakes current responsibilities to execute those powers.

Planning Law


The transfer of title to property under the law of Descent and Distribution. The transfer of legal or official powers from an individual who formerly held them to another who undertakes current responsibilities to execute those powers.

Vendor and Purchaser


The sale of real property is treated differently by the law than the sale of Personal Property. The relationship between the seller and the buyer has traditionally been labeled that of vendor and purchaser. A contract to sell real property (for example, a house, a building, farmland, or a vacant lot) does not automatically mean the sale will be consummated. The vendor will be required to prove that she can convey a marketable title to the land. A contract for the sale of real property is executed when the vendor and the purchaser sign an agreement in which the vendor promises to convey ownership of the property to the purchaser, who promises to pay an agreed sum. The contract is consummated when the vendor delivers a deed to the purchaser and the purchaser pays the vendor's price. Consummation of the contract is variously referred to as the closing of escrow, the date of closing, or simply the closing. The vendor-purchaser relationship is based on the unique nature of land. Title to any particular parcel has always involved more complications than arise with the ownership of personal property. The status of the vendor's title is a matter of great concern to any prospective purchaser, but that title is often subject to deficiencies. Most purchasers offer to buy land before they have made an investigation of the seller's title to it. To protect the purchaser in this situation, the law permits him to demand a marketable title from the vendor and to withdraw from a sales contract if the title turns out to be unmarketable. Therefore, every contract for the sale of land includes the implied requirement that the vendor's title be marketable, unless the contract specifically provides otherwise. A marketable title is a title that the vendor does in fact have and that is not subject to encumbrances, which are interests in the property held by someone other than the vendor or purchaser. Unless an agreement indicates otherwise, the purchaser is entitled to receive an absolutely undivided interest in all the property he has contracted to buy. For example, if the vendor promises to convey forty acres in the sales agreement and the next day the purchaser discovers that the vendor has title to only twenty-five acres, the purchaser is not obligated to honor the contract because the vendor lacks marketable title to the land the vendor agreed to convey. If the vendor's title is subject to an outstanding mortgage, the title may be unmarketable. The mere existence of an encumbrance does not necessarily cause the title to be unmarketable, however, if the parties have provided for it in their contract. For example, in the sale of a vendor's house that has an outstanding mortgage, the purchaser's money will first be applied to paying off the vendor's mortgage before the vendor receives any proceeds. To avoid confusion and frustration of the parties' intentions, contracts of sale usually require an insurable title to the property as evidenced by a title insurance policy. The purchaser must accept the vendor's title, provided an insurance company indicates its willingness to insure the title without making exceptions to the coverage. Because land has always been regarded as a unique asset, a prospective purchaser can usually enforce a sales agreement whether the vendor wants to proceed or not. This power has the effect of giving the purchaser an interest in the land itself, as well as personal contract rights against the vendor. By executing the sales contract, the purchaser becomes the equitable owner of the land. The vendor retains legal title, but holds the title only as security for payment. This legal fiction is known as the doctrine of equitable conversion. In some states the doctrine of equitable conversion shifts any loss or damage to the property to the purchaser before the closing. As the true owner of the property, the purchaser is required to bear the risk of loss during the contract period and cannot withdraw from the agreement. Thus, if a fire caused by neither party destroys the premises two weeks before the closing, the purchaser will still be obligated to complete the contract and pay the vendor's price. Some courts reject this application of equitable conversion, holding that the contract fails if the vendor cannot deliver the premises in the original condition on the day of closing. This view treats the continued existence of undamaged property as an implied condition of the sales agreement. The purchaser is entitled to withdraw from the contract if the property is damaged prior to closing. Several states have adopted the Uniform Vendor and Purchaser Risk Act, under which innocent losses occurring during the contract period are allocated to the vendor, unless the purchaser has taken possession prior to closing. The risk of loss is on the person in possession because that person is in the best position to take care of the property.

Environmental Law


What is Environmental Law?

Environmental Law is a complex combination of state, federal, and international treaty law pertaining to issues of concern to the environment and protecting natural resources. For example, environmental laws often relate to issues such as pollution of soil, air, or water; global warming; and depletion of oil, coal, and clean water.

Law and Indigenous Peoples


Indigenous People or Indigenous Peoples?

The United Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights state that all peoples have the right of self-determination by virtue of which they “freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development”. (Part one, Article one, 1966) However, because there has been dispute over the exact meaning of the term “peoples”, it is not clear exactly to whom “peoples” refers. Some state governments oppose use of the term “peoples” in regards to Indigenous Peoples because they fear its association with the right of secession and independent statehood. Those states would prefer the terms “tribes” or “populations”, which do not have those associations. On the other hand, Indigenous Peoples use the term “peoples” because of its association with inherent recognition of a distinct identity. “Indigenous People” is a compromise between these two positions. Indigenous Peoples and their advocates find the denial of being described as “peoples” and the inherent entitlement to self-determination a form of racism and continued discrimination.

Commercial Law


The term commercial law describes a wide body of laws that govern business transactions. The Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), which has been adopted in part by every state in the United States, is the primary authority that governs commercial transactions. The UCC is divided into nine articles, covering a broad spectrum of issues that arise in commercial transactions. These articles govern the following: sales of goods, leases of goods, negotiable instruments, bank deposits, fund transfers, letters of credit, bulk sales, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, investment Securities, and secured transactions.

Competition Law


Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.Competition law is implemented through public and private enforcement

Insurance Law


A contract in which one party agrees to indemnify another against a predefined category of risks in exchange for a premium. Depending on the contract, the insurer may promise to financially protect the insured from the loss, damage, or liability stemming from some event. An insurance contract will almost always limit the amount of monetary protection possible.

Consumer Law


The Consumer Protection Act of 1986 defines consumer law in India. This legislation helps to protect consumers from any kind of exploitation by availing the means for hearing and considering and finally settling disputes. This Act also stipulates the goods and service providers’ responsibilities. In the year 1987, the provisions of this Act became binding legally.

Introduction to Taxation Law


The authority to levy a tax is derived from the Constitution of India which allocates the power to levy various taxes between the Centre and the State. An important restriction on this power is Article 265 of the Constitution which states that "No tax shall be levied or collected except by the authority of law.

Law and Technology


The Indian Journal of Law and Technology (IJLT) is a student-edited, peer-reviewed, completely open access law journal published annually by the National Law School of India University, Bangalore. The IJLT is the first and only law journal in India devoted exclusively to the study of the interface between law and technology.

Financial Services Regulation


As regulators around the world sharpen their focus on the financial sector, never before has a deep understanding of regulatory change across the full spectrum of banking, insurance and securities markets been so important.

Private International Law


Private international law is the body of conventions, model laws, national laws, legal guides, and other documents and instruments that regulate private relationships across national borders. Private international law has a dualistic character, balancing international consensus with domestic recognition and implementation, as well as balancing sovereign actions with those of the private sector. United States domestic law’s nearest equivalent to private international law would be interstate “conflict of laws” or “choice of laws.”

Public International Law


Public International Law is the law of the political system of nation-states. It is a distinct and self-contained system of law, independent of the national systems with which it interacts, and dealing with relations which they do not effectively govern.

International Humanitarian & Criminal Law


International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of armed conflict (jus in bello). It is that branch of international law which seeks to limit the effects of armed conflict by protecting persons who are not participating in hostilities, and by restricting and regulating the means and methods of warfare available to combatants. IHL is inspired by considerations of humanity and the mitigation of human suffering. "It comprises a set of rules, established by treaty or custom, that seeks to protect persons and property/objects that are (or may be) affected by armed conflict and limits the rights of parties to a conflict to use methods and means of warfare of their choice".It includes "the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Conventions, as well as subsequent treaties, case law, and customary international law.It defines the conduct and responsibilities of belligerent nations, neutral nations, and individuals engaged in warfare, in relation to each other and to protected persons, usually meaning non-combatants. It is designed to balance humanitarian concerns and military necessity, and subjects warfare to the rule of law by limiting its destructive effect and mitigating human suffering.

Maritime Law


A body of laws, conventions and treaties that governs international private business or other matters involving ships, shipping or crimes occurring on open water. Laws between nations governing such things as national versus international waters are considered public international law and are known as the Law of the Seas.

European Union Law


European Union law is a body of treaties and legislation, such as Regulations and Directives, which have direct effect or indirect effect on the laws of European Union member states. The three sources of European Union law are primary law, secondary law and supplementary law. The main sources of primary law are the Treaties establishing the European Union. Secondary sources include regulations and directives which are based on the Treaties. The legislature of the European Union is principally composed of the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union, which under the Treaties may establish secondary law to pursue the objective set out in the Treaties.

International Trade Law


International trade is a complicated area of law to research because there are numerous levels of trade organizations and interactions. There are bilateral trade agreements, regional trade agreements and multinational trade agreements. Each of these agreements has its own history, policies and dispute settlement procedures. Trade organizations established under the agreements have separate resources that can be searched. Furthermore, individual countries have their own policies and laws relating to international trade. As an example, the United States Congress must pass legislation enacting international trade agreements before the United States can officially become a party. The national policies have to be researched individually and frequently separately from the resources relating to the international organizations.

Jessup International Law Moot


With participants from over 500 law schools in more than 80 countries, the Jessup Competition is the world’s largest moot court competition. The competition is a simulation of a fictional dispute between countries before the International Court of Justice, the judicial organ of the United Nations.The Jessup Competition is a demanding but very rewarding competition that offers an excellent opportunity for improving oral advocacy, writing, research, and collaboration skills, and for developing expertise on cutting-edge international legal issues.

Asian Legal Systems


This seminar is a chance to gain additional perspective on our own system by looking at the historical development and present-day functioning of legal systems in Asia. It includes looking at their historical roots, and in particular the broad influence of Chinese legal philosophy and early legal institutions. In Japan we look at the maturing of the traditional Japanese system during the long period when Japan was closed to foreign influence. The course then turns to the development of the modern systems beginning in the latter part of the 19th Century. The influence of Europe, and eventually of America, is an important part of this story. We will look at criminal procedure and constitutional law as well as commercial law. Those with an interest in another Asian country-for example, Korea, Vietnam or Thailand-can also incorporate some comparative study of that system into their papers. Our emphasis will be on each country's legal culture, and how that interacts with the general cultural attitudes of the society. The material is not oriented toward doing business, but may be useful for lawyers who deal with Asian transactions or lawyers in connection with their practice. A number of guest speakers from Asia will provide an opportunity for discussion with them of the various topics considered. Ample research material is available in English, but anyone with Asian language skills will be encouraged to use foreign language research materials. Paper topics will be selected at the fourth session, a bibliography and outline is to be submitted by the sixth week, and a rough final draft is to be submitted by the beginning of the tenth week to allow for individual conferences and revision.

Comparative Law


Comparative law is the study of differences and similarities between the law of different countries. More specifically, it involves study of the different legal systems in existence in the world, including the common law, the civil law, socialist law, Jewish Law, Islamic law, Hindu law, and Chinese law. It includes the description and analysis of foreign legal systems, even where no explicit comparison is undertaken. The importance of comparative law has increased enormously in the present age of internationalism, economic globalization and democratization.

Legal History


Legal history or the history of law is the study of how law has evolved and why it changed. Legal history is closely connected to the development of civilisations and is set in the wider context of social history. Among certain jurists and historians of legal process, it has been seen as the recording of the evolution of laws and the technical explanation of how these laws have evolved with the view of better understanding the origins of various legal concepts; some consider it a branch of intellectual history. Twentieth century historians have viewed legal history in a more contextualised manner more in line with the thinking of social historians. They have looked at legal institutions as complex systems of rules, players and symbols and have seen these elements interact with society to change, adapt, resist or promote certain aspects of civil society. Such legal historians have tended to analyse case histories from the parameters of social science inquiry, using statistical methods, analysing class distinctions among litigants, petitioners and other players in various legal processes. By analysing case outcomes, transaction costs, number of settled cases they have begun an analysis of legal institutions, practices, procedures and briefs that give us a more complex picture of law and society than the study of jurisprudence, case law and civil codes can achieve.

Advanced Crime and Criminology


Advanced Criminal Law

Advanced Criminal Law" is the fifth episode of the first season of the American comedy television series Community. It aired in the United States on NBC on October 15, 2009. The episode centers on three main story lines. First, Jeff (Joel McHale) defends Britta (Gillian Jacobs) when she is accused of cheating on a Spanish test. Meanwhile, Pierce (Chevy Chase) tries to help Annie (Alison Brie) write Greendale a school song. Finally, Troy (Donald Glover) and Abed (Danny Pudi) test each other's gullibility.

Criminology

Criminology is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in the behavioral sciences, drawing especially upon the research of sociologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, social anthropologists, as well as scholars of law.

Advanced Jurisprudence


Jurisprudence is the study and theory of law. Scholars of jurisprudence, also known as jurists or legal theorists (including legal philosophers and social theorists of law), hope to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature of law, of legal reasoning, legal systems and of legal institutions. Modern jurisprudence began in the 18th century and was focused on the first principles of the natural law, civil law, and the law of nations.General jurisprudence can be broken into categories both by the type of question scholars seek to answer and by the theories of jurisprudence, or schools of thought, regarding how those questions are best answered.

Clinical Legal Education


A legal clinic (also law clinic or law school clinic) is a law school program providing hands-on-legal experience to law school students and services to various clients. Clinics are usually directed by clinical professors.[1] Legal clinics typically do pro bono work in a particular area, providing free legal services to clients. Students typically provide assistance with research, drafting legal arguments, and meeting with clients. In many cases, one of the clinic's professors will show up for oral argument before the Court. However, many jurisdictions have "student practice" rules that allow law-clinic students to appear and argue in court

Special Topic


This course allows a special topic of study for individuals or small groups of students who wish to gain particular or additional knowledge in a topic in environment and society not covered in other courses taught in the School or elsewhere in the University. Depending on the topic, students may be required to develop a guided reading program, and/or to take part in selected lectures, workshops, tutorials, seminars, discussion groups, field trips and other activities.

Research Project


The word “research” originates from the medieval French word rechercher, meaning “to seek closely.” In its most general sense, research involves investigating a topic to learn more about it. Typically, one conducts research to answer questions. Often, as one learns more about a topic, initial questions generate additional questions. Sometimes the purpose of research is simply to increase one’s factual knowledge—for example, learning how to treat a bee sting, or looking up the difference between a hurricane and a cyclone. More often, however, research involves going beyond mere fact­collecting. It requires one to analyze, or interpret, the information gathered and to draw conclusions from it. A research paper thus usually includes a thesis statement that makes a claim about the topic, followed by evidence to make a persuasive argument.

Islamic Law


Islamic Laws are made up of Shari'ah and Islamic jurisprudence. Shari'ah is seen as sacred and constitutes the Qur'an and Prophet Muhammad's Sunnah (way), which is found in the Hadith and Sira. Islamic jurisprudence is a complimentary expansion of the former by Islamic jurists.

Immigration and Refugee Law


An Act respecting immigration to Canada and the granting of refugee protection to persons who are displaced, persecuted or in danger

Copyright Law


Copyright is a bundle of rights given by the law to the creators of literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works and the producers of cinematograph films and sound recordings.The rights provided under Copyright law include the rights of reproduction of the work, communication of the work to the public, adaptation of the work and translation of the work.The scope and duration of protection provided under copyright law varies with the nature of the protected work.

Patent & Trademark Law


What is a trade mark?

A Trade Mark is a visual symbol in the form of a word , a device ,or a label applied to articles of commerce with a view to indicate to the purchasing public that is a good manufactured or other wise dealt in by a particular person as distinguished from similar goods dealt or manufacture by other persons.

Law Moot


moot court is an extracurricular activity at many law schools in which participants take part in simulated court proceedings, which usually involves drafting briefs (or memorials) and participating in oral argument. The term derives from Anglo-Saxon times, when a moot (gmot or emot) was a gathering of prominent men in a locality to discuss matters of local importance. The modern activity differs from a mock trial, as moot court usually refers to a simulated appellate court or arbitral case, while a mock trial usually refers to a simulated jury trial or bench trial. Moot court does not involve actual testimony by witnesses, cross-examination, or the presentation of evidence, but is focused solely on the application of the law to a common set of evidentiary assumptions to which the competitors must be introduced. In most countries, the phrase "a moot court" may be shortened to simply "a moot" and the activity may be called "mooting".

Alternative Dispute Resolution


Any method of resolving disputes other than by litigation. Abbreviated as ADR. Public courts may be asked to review the validity of ADR methods, but they will rarely overturn ADR decisions and awards if the disputing parties formed a valid contract to abide by them. Arbitration and mediation are the two major forms of ADR.

Causation and Proof


Causation is the "causal relationship between conduct and result". That is to say that causation provides a means of connecting conduct with a resulting effect, typically an injury. In criminal law, it is defined as the actus reus (an action) from which the specific injury or other effect arose and is combined with mens rea (a state of mind) to comprise the elements of guilt.

International Organisations


An organization with global mandates, generally funded bycontributions from national governments. Examples include theInternational Committee of the Red Cross, the InternationalOrganization for Migration, and United Nations agencies. Also called IO. See also nongovernmental organizations.

Personal and Corporate Insolvency


Insolvency is the state of being unable to pay the money owed, by a person or company, on time; those in a state of insolvency are said to be insolvent. There are two forms: cash-flow insolvency and balance-sheet insolvency.

Advanced Private Law


Private law affects the rights and obligations of individuals, families, businesses and small groups and exists to assist citizens in disputes that involve private matters. Its scope is more specific than public law and covers.

Advanced Public Law


Public law is that area of constitutional, administrative, criminal, and International Law that focuses on the organization of the government, the relations between the state and its citizens, the responsibilities of government officials, and the relations between sister states. It is concerned with political matters, including the powers, rights, capacities, and duties of various levels of government and government officials.

Advanced Tax


When to file advance tax?

Advance tax or self-assessment taxes have to be paid on the 15th of September, December and March, in instalments of 30 per cent, 30 per cent and 40 per cent, respectively, for non-corporates. Corporates need to pay it on the 15th of June, September, December and March.

Law of Political Institutions


Political institutions are organizations which create, enforce, and apply laws; that mediate conflict; make (governmental) policy on the economy and social systems; and otherwise provide representation for the populous. Examples of such political institutions include political parties, trade unions, and the (legal) courts. The term 'Political Institutions' may also refer to the recognized structure of rules and principles within which the above organizations operate, including such concepts as the right to vote, responsible government, and accountability.

Privacy Law


Privacy law refers to the laws which deal with the regulation of personal information about individuals which can be collected by governments and other public as well as private organizations and its storage and use.

Advocacy: Principles, Procedures and Practice


Appellate Advocacy: Principles and Practice is designed primarily for use in an upper class appellate practice course. It will provide students with a basic understanding of the most fundamental principles of appellate litigation, using examples from the federal system as well as several illustrative states. And, by helping law students to understand the basic principles behind appellate litigation, which are not covered in any other law school course, Appellate Advocacy: Principles and Practice can also enhance their study of law in general.

Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling Working Group


Human trafficking is the acquisition of people by improper means such as force, fraud or deception, with the aim of exploiting them. Smuggling of migrants involves the procurement for financial or other material benefit of illegal entry of a person into a State of which that person is not a national or resident. The challenge for all countries, rich and poor, is to target the criminals who exploit desperate people and to protect and assist victims of trafficking and smuggled migrants, many of whom endure unimaginable hardships in their bid for a better life.

Civil Procedure


Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the rules and standards that courts follow when adjudicating civil lawsuits (as opposed to procedures in criminal law matters). These rules govern how a lawsuit or case may be commenced, what kind of service of process (if any) is required, the types of pleadings or statements of case, motions or applications, and orders allowed in civil cases, the timing and manner of depositions and discovery or disclosure, the conduct of trials, the process for judgment, various available remedies, and how the courts and clerks must function.

Law of Evidence


The law of evidence encompasses the rules and legal principles that govern the proof of facts in a legal proceeding. These rules determine what evidence must or must not be considered by the trier of fact in reaching its decision and, sometimes, the weight that may be given to that evidence. The law of evidence is also concerned with the quantum (amount), quality, and type of proof needed to prevail in litigation. The quantum of evidence is the amount of evidence needed; the quality of proof is how reliable such evidence should be considered. This includes such concepts as hearsay, authentication, admissibility, reasonable doubt, and clear and convincing evidence.

The Legal Profession


Legal profession is a profession, and legal professionals study, develop and apply law. Usually, there is a requirement for someone choosing a career in law to first obtain a law degree or some other form of legal education.

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