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Magnetic Resonance
Magnetic Resonance Instrumentation
MRI Safety & Monitoring
Standard Imaging Sequences, Image Reconstruction, Applications
Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Fundamentals
Fast Imaging Techniques
Vascular Imaging
Diffusion & Perfusion Imaging
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MagneticResonance Spectroscopy & Applications
Minor Project
Fundamental MRI Of The Brain & Spine
Fundamental Musculoskeletal MRI
Cardiac MRI -Techniques And Applications
Breast MRI
Medical Image Processing And Analysis
Advanced Techniques In MRT




   
 
 

Classical Theory of Magnetic Resonance


Magnetic resonance is a phenomenon concerning magnet or specifically Magnetic dipole , when placed in a uniform static magnetic field, its energy is split up into a finite no. of energy levels, depending on the value of quantum no. of angular momentum. This is similar to energy quantization for atoms, say e− in H atom; in this case atom, in interaction to external electric field, makes transition between different energy levels by absorbing or emitting photons. Similarly if a magnetic dipole is perturbed with e.m. field of proper frequency(E/{{h}}\,), then it can also transit between its energy eigenstates, but as here separation between energy eigenvalues are small, frequency of photon will be microwave or radio frequency range. It will be shown that if the dipole is tickled with another frequency field, it is unlikely for transition. This phenomenon is very similar to that, when a system is acted by a periodic force of freq.,equal to its natural frequency. Magnetic resonance phenomena introduced new era in precision measurements.

Magnetic Resonance Instrumentation


Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation. This energy is at a specific resonance frequency which depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of the isotope of the atoms; in practical applications, the frequency is similar to VHF and UHF television broadcasts (60–1000 MHz). NMR allows the observation of specific quantum mechanical magnetic properties of the atomic nucleus. Many scientific techniques exploit NMR phenomena to study molecular physics, crystals, and non-crystalline materials through NMR spectroscopy. NMR is also routinely used in advanced medical imaging techniques, such as in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

MRI Safety & Monitoring


Monitoring Patients in the MR Environment Conventional monitoring equipment and accessories were not designed to operate in the harsh magnetic resonance (MR) environment that utilizes electromagnetic fields that can adversely affect or alter the operation of these devices. Fortunately, various monitors and other patient support devices have been developed or specially-modified to perform properly during MRI procedures.

Standard Imaging Sequences, Image Reconstruction, Applications


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), or magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to investigate the anatomy and physiology of the body in both health and disease. MRI scanners use magnetic fields and radio waves to form images of the body. The technique is widely used in hospitals for medical diagnosis, staging of disease and follow-up without exposure to ionizing radiation.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Fundamentals


Fundamentals of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

agnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combines some of the most interesting principles of physics and some of today's most sophisticated technology to make medical images of amazing clarity and surprisingly high diagnostic accuracy.1–4 MRI today is more revolutionary than x-ray imaging was a century ago. Twenty-five years ago, when MRI was first introduced to clinical practice, its richness of applications to medical imaging could not have been imagined. It quickly was demonstrated that MRI is useful in diagnosing diseases in the brain and spine. Today, MRI provides not only exquisite anatomic detail and contrast but also provides functional information that can help characterize disease. We now use MRI routinely to assess blood flow, to quantify diffusion within cells, and to localize thought processes in the human brain. The richness of MRI is continuing to unfold.

Fast Imaging Techniques


In the work of Mani et al (2013, 2014) we show that reconstructions of the diffusion signal from under-sampled data using the proposed k-q joint undersampling method yields accurate results. Specifically, our results show that accurate reconstruction with less than 5% reconstruction error is possible by using only 2-3 spatial interleaves per diffusion direction. This corresponds to an acquisition time of 6-8 mins for 17 slices at full FOV with a spatial resolution of 1mm2 in-plane. The proposed scheme can significantly accelerate the acquisition of high spatial and angular resolution diffusion imaging by accurately reconstructing crossing fiber architectures from under-sampled data.

Vascular Imaging


Vascular imaging is a key component of a comprehensive stroke diagnosis and cause-based therapy. Siemens supports you with the full spectrum of angiography systems available today. Siemens analysis tools reduce the information load by removing distracting visual input (e.g. skull base) in intra-arterial (X-ray), CT, MR, and US angiography. Consequently, it assists you in focusing on vascular changes and interventional procedures such as clot removal, stent implantation, and thrombolysis.

Diffusion & Perfusion Imaging


Conventional CT and MR imaging are not sufficiently sensitive to evaluate acute stroke. CT is perfectly adequate to detect intracranial hemorrhage, but in the case of nonhemorrhagic stroke, the CT scan may be negative for the first 24 to 36 hours. FLAIR and T2-weighted images can detect acute stroke by 6 to 12 hours, but most new stroke therapies focus on the first 3 hours after onset. The ultimate goal for imaging is to define the area of brain infarction and perfusion deficit, and to identify any ischemic tissue that can be salvaged by medical or surgical therapy. Diffusion-weighted imaging can detect acute brain infarction within 1 to 2 hours. Perfusion imaging is positive immediately following an acute stroke.

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging


What is Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging ?

Functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI, is a technique for measuring brain activity. It works by detecting the changes in blood oxygenation and flow that occur in response to neural activity – when a brain area is more active it consumes more oxygen and to meet this increased demand blood flow increases to the active area. fMRI can be used to produce activation maps showing which parts of the brain are involved in a particular mental process.

MagneticResonance Spectroscopy & Applications


he clinical use of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been limited for a long time, mainly due to its low sensitivity. However, with the advent of clinical MR systems with higher magnetic field strengths such as 3 Tesla, the development of better coils, and the design of optimized radio-frequency pulses, sensitivity has been considerably improved. Therefore, in vivo MRS has become a technique that is routinely used more and more in the clinic. In this review, the basic methodology of in vivo MRS is described-mainly focused on (1)H MRS of the brain-with attention to hardware requirements, patient safety, acquisition methods, data post-processing, and quantification. Furthermore, examples of clinical applications of in vivo brain MRS in two interesting fields are described. First, together with a description of the major resonances present in brain MR spectra, several examples are presented of deviations from the normal spectral pattern associated with inborn errors of metabolism. Second, through examples of MR spectra of brain tumors, it is shown that MRS can play an important role in oncology.

Minor Project


An edge contraction is an operation which removes an edge from a graph while simultaneously merging the two vertices it used to connect. An undirected graph H is a minor of another undirected graph G if a graph isomorphic to H can be obtained from G by contracting some edges, deleting some edges, and deleting some isolated vertices. The order in which a sequence of such contractions and deletions is performed on G does not affect the resulting graph H.

Fundamental MRI of the Brain & Spine


MRI for Technologists is a training program designed to meet the needs of radiologic technologists entering and/or working in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These units are designed to augment classroom instruction and on-site training for radiologic technology students and professionals planning to take the review board examinations, as well as to provide a review for those looking to refresh their knowledge base in MR imaging.
MRI for Technologists: MRI of the Brain and Spine introduces the learner to the concepts and techniques used in neuroradiological imaging, including surface coil technology, imaging applications, pulse sequences, disease processes, and protocols.

Fundamental Musculoskeletal MRI


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), or magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to investigate the anatomy and physiology of the body in both health and disease. MRI scanners use magnetic fields and radio waves to form images of the body. The technique is widely used in hospitals for medical diagnosis, staging of disease and follow-up without exposure to ionizing radiation.

Cardiac MRI -Techniques and Applications


Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging perfusion (cardiac MRI perfusion, CMRI perfusion), also known as stress CMR perfusion,it is a clinical magnetic resonance imaging test performed on patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease to determine if there are perfusion defects in the myocardium of the left ventricle that are caused by narrowing of one or more of the coronary arteries.

Breast MRI


What is MRI of the Breast?

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose and treat medical conditions. MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays). Detailed MR images allow physicians to evaluate various parts of the body and determine the presence of certain diseases. The images can then be examined on a computer monitor, transmitted electronically, printed or copied to a CD. MRI of the breast offers valuable information about many breast conditions that cannot be obtained by other imaging modalities, such as mammography or ultrasound.

Medical Image Processing and Analysis


Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention. Medical imaging seeks to reveal internal structures hidden by the skin and bones, as well as to diagnose and treat disease. Medical imaging also establishes a database of normal anatomy and physiology to make it possible to identify abnormalities. Although imaging of removed organs and tissues can be performed for medical reasons, such procedures are usually considered part of pathology instead of medical imaging.

Advanced Techniques in Magnetic Resonance Imaging


Diffusion MRI (or dMRI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method which came into existence in the mid-1980s.It allows the mapping of the diffusion process of molecules, mainly water, in biological tissues, in vivo and non-invasively. Molecular diffusion in tissues is not free, but reflects interactions with many obstacles, such as macromolecules, fibers, and membranes. Water molecule diffusion patterns can therefore reveal microscopic details about tissue architecture, either normal or in a diseased state.

         
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